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With the earth left cursed to drink Abel's blood, Cain was no longer able to farm the land. He receives a mark from God, commonly referred to as the mark of Cain, representing God's promise to protect Cain from being murdered.
One popular theory regarding the name of Cain connects it to the verb "kana" (קנה), meaning "to get" and used by Eve in Genesis 4:1 when she says after bearing Cain, "I have gotten a man from the Lord." In this viewpoint, dating articulated by Nachmanides in the thirteenth century, Cain's name presages his role of mastery, power, and sin.
One question arising early in the story is why God rejects Cain's sacrifice, since Cain never received instructions about how to sacrifice correctly, nor had he done anything wrong, and why God then admonishes Cain with a warning about sin.
The Midrash suggest that although Abel brought the best meat from his flock, Cain did not set aside for God the best of his harvest., Cain treacherously murdered his brother Abel, lied about the murder to God, and as a result was cursed and marked for life.
Such a city could correspond with Eridu, one of the most ancient cities known.
This can be seen with Jubilees 4 which narrates that Cain settled down and married his sister Awan, who bore his first son, the first Enoch, approximately 196 years after the creation of Adam.
The narrative never explicitly states Cain's motive for murdering his brother, nor God's reason for rejecting Cain's sacrifice, nor details on the identity of Cain's wife.
Some traditional interpretations consider Cain to be the originator of evil, violence, or greed. It has been proposed that the etymology of their names may be a direct pun on the roles they take in the Genesis narrative.
The following family tree of the line of Cain is compiled from a variety of biblical and extra-biblical texts.Gnostic exegesis in the Apocryphon of John has Eve seduced by Yaldaboth.However, in the Hypostasis of the Archons, Eve is raped by a pair of Archons.Rather, Eve was subject to adultery having been seduced by either Sammael, or some fallen angel.Thus, according to some interpreters, Cain was half-human and half-angelic, one of the Nephilim.